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Antibody (1:10000) and Amplex Red soluble fluorophore [79]. Amplex Red fluorescence was measured (Ex 579/Em 595) in a SpectraMax M5 microplate reader (Molecular Devices Corp., Sunnyvale, CA). Negative control reactions included substitutions with nonrelevant primary or secondary antibodies, and omission of primary or secondary antibody. Immunoreactivities were normalized to protein content as dete
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Sulin receptor substrate gene expression, and reduced expression of tau and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which are regulated by insulin and IGF-1. In addition, increased levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine were measured in cerebella of HFD ?NDEA treated rats, and overall, NDEA+HFD treatment reduced brain levels of Tau, phospho-GSK-3b (reflecting increased GSK-3b activity), glial fibr
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Www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6823/10/Page 6 ofthe context of peripheral insulin resistance or T2DM. Similar results have been reported previously, in which the investigators generated models with much higher doses of NDEA [84]. One potential explanation for this paradox is that homeostatic mechanisms may have shifted toward increased storage of lipids/triglycerides in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle
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Lusions: Early limited exposure to nitrosamines exacerbates the adverse effects of later chronic high dietary fat intake in promoting T2DM and neurodegeneration. The mechanism involves increased generation of ceramides and probably other toxic lipids in brain.Background The prevalence rates of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabol
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Software (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, CA). Software generated significant P-values are shown in the graphs or included in the tables.ResultsEffects of NDEA and HFD on Serum Biomarkers of T2DM (Table 2)Tissue homogenates were prepared in radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer containing protease and phosphatase inhibitors, as previously described [46]. Direct ELISAs were performed in 96-well
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Ysiol Cell Physiol. 2012;302(2):C383?91. 68. Sachdev U, Cui X, Hong G, Namkoong S, Karlsson JM, Baty CJ, et al. High mobility group box 1 promotes endothelial cell angiogenic behavior in vitro and improves muscle perfusion in vivo in response to ischemic injury. J Vasc Surg. 2012;55(1):180?1.Yang et al. Cell Bioscience (2015) 5:Page 10 of69. Kang R, Livesey KM, Zeh HJ, Loze MT, Tang D. HMGB1: a
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Gs of: 1) increased risk for developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, or AD in individuals with T2DM [7,27] or obesity/dyslipidemic disorders [28]; 2) progressive brain insulin resistance andinsulin deficiency in AD [29-32]; 3) cognitive impairment in experimental animal models of T2DM and/or obesity [33,34]; 4) AD-type neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in experimentally indu
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Ds, and cholesterol levels compared with LFD+VEH and LFD +NDEA treated groups. In addition, the serum free fatty acid level was significantly lower in the LFD+NDEA compared with LFD+VEH treated rats, whereas the triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar in the two groups. Therefore, hyperglycemia, hyper-insulinemia, and hyper-leptinemia were features of chronic HFD feeding, and worsened by

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